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21. The Owl
Most of us know of the wise old owl, but the owl has many contradictory beliefs. Feared and venerated, but also despised and admired. The owl had a very different reputation in the Middle Ages. It was a bird of ill-omen, believed to frequent tombs and dark caves.
14th/15th Century
Original found in River Seine France

22. Crowned 'R' Letters were commonly formed into the framework of badges made in the 14th and 15th centuries. The crown may be of religious significance, Christ being the King and Mary the Queen. This one may have been produced in honour and support of Richard III.

23. Lancastrian Livery Badge The ostrich feather and crown badge was a generic Lancastrian badge during the ‘Wars of the Roses.' It was the courage of one of his adversaries, the blind King John of Bohemia which made Edward, Prince of Wales adopt the ostrich feather as a royal badge after the battle of Crecy in 1346. Original found in London

24.Hare and Hound A popular country pursuit, using greyhounds for hunting hares. Some humour depicted on this badge with the hare hiding beneath the hound who hunts by sight, not smell!Original found in Salisbury. Late 14th century/early 15th Century. .

25. Saint Barbara St. Barbara is patron saint of armourers, artillery men, firemen, architects, mathematicians; she protects against sudden death, fire, lightning and explosions. She is holding the martyr's palm and open book The tower is shown where she was imprisoned before her martyrdom. She became very popular late 15th and early 16th century. Original found in London

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28.St James of Compostela The shrine became one of the three great pilgrimages along with Rome and Jerusalem by 12th century. The scallop was recognised as the universal symbol of pilgrimage and could not be restricted to Compostela. In this example the image of St James, dressed in pilgrim's attire, has been incorporated into the design. Original found in London

30. Crowned 'D'
Letters were commonly formed into the framework of badges made in the 14th and 15th centuries.
The crown may be of religious significance, Christ being the King and Mary the Queen.

The letter ‘D' represents Dominus - God.

26. St. Catherine of Alexandria
Catherine was a legendary 4th century martyr condemned to die on a wheel for her Christian beliefs. At her touch, the wheel of torture was destroyed. After being beheaded with a sword, her body was miraculously transported to Mount Sinai. A church and monastery were built in her honour. Originals like this one have been found in London and Canterbury.

27. Fleur de Lys Representing the Virgin's Lily, the Flower of Innocence, the symbol of the Virgin Mary. Linked to the shrine at Walsingham a very popular pilgrimage site, but also associated with the shrine to Our Lady of the Undercroft Canterbury. 1450.

29. St. Edward the Confessor
Reigning from 1042-66, Edward was known for his generosity to the poor and to the infirm. He is known for the rebuilding of Westminster Cathedral. In 1161 Edward was canonised, his shrine in Westminster Abbey attracted Royal and popular patronage during the medieval period.
Similar badges have been found on a Medieval church site Northampton.
Late 14th-15th century.

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32.Saint James (scallop shell) This was the symbol of Saint James His shrine at Santiago de Compostella was the most important destination for pilgrims along with Rome and Jerusalem, one of the three great pilgrimages. It was later recognised as the universal symbol of pilgrimage and could not be restricted to Compostela. In this example the image of St James, dressed in pilgrim's attire, has been incorporated into the design. Original found in London

31. Jousting A favourite form of colourful entertainment during the Middle Ages. Contests took place at tournaments providing a venue for Knights to practise various forms of combat. It enabled the knight to keep in excellent condition for warfare. 14th century.

33. St. Werburga
St. Werburga was the daughter of King Wulfhere of Mercia. She refused to marry and insisted that she become a nun at Ely. As a Benedictine nun she became patroness of Chester. She was reputed to have the ability to read the minds and was revered in her lifetime for miracles including the story of the flock of geese.
15th Century
Original found in London.

34. Thomas Becket Slain This badge commemorates the martyrdom of Thomas Becket showing the moment of death by four knights dressed in armour. It is one of the most intricate of badges. This badge is similar to an illuminated subject in the Luttrel Psalter c 1340. A complete badge was dug up from the Thames and other incomplete ones were found showing less detail.

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37. King Henry VI
An incompetent Lancastrian king, but he had true holiness. After the defeat at Tewkesbury in 1471, he was put to death in the Tower of London, but soon achieved popular sanctity after his body was removed to Windsor. His cult was recognized by Richard III and rose to prominence as an important pilgrimage site. Original found in London.
15Century

36. St George of Windsor
Born around 280 AD in what is today modern Turkey, George was a cavalry officer in the Roman army, but executed for his Christian faith; he was an inspiration for many. The legend of the slaying of the dragon was emblematic of the triumph of good over evil. Around the border of the badgein Latin is written 'sce George ora pro nobis' (Saint George pray for us).15th century.
Original found in London.

35. Lion Passant Popular as a royal livery badge throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. The crowned lion passant showed ones allegiance to the king in times of unrest. Original only complete example retrieved from the Thames foreshore in Dowgate London

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